體育活動對智障人士之裨益 體育活動對任何人士來說都是有益身心的,由於智障人士在智力及思考性方面的發展較為遜色,故此體育運動的發展對他們尤其重要。透過參與體育活動,智障人士 不單可改善健康,更加可藉著與他人溝通,從而增強自信心及融入社群。

何謂智障
1.
何謂智障
 

智障是指腦部功能發展緩慢或不能如常完全發展,而其個人在學習及社會適應能力方面亦因而受到限制,不及常人,但在智能以外的發展,如情感或體能活動的能力,大部份的智障人士基本上與常人無異。
智障是一種永久的缺陷,它不是疾病,是不可治癒的。但智障人士卻可接受訓練,只要給予及早的教育和訓練,其有限潛能是可發展的。
智障程度的分類有許多種,不同國家採用不同的分類標準,現時香港一般採用的分類如下:

 
類別
智商程度
輕度
5069
中度
2549
嚴重
25 或以下
     
2.
智障的成因
 
智障的成因可分為先天和後天。
 
2.1
先天是指在產前引起智障的成因
   
- 遺傳基因出現問題
- 胎兒受病毒感染
 
2.2
後天是指嬰兒在出生時或之後所引起的智障成因
   
- 嬰兒在生產過程中出現問題而導致智障
- 嬰兒在出生後因患病和未能得到適當的照料而導致智障
     
3.
智障人士的特性
 
3.1
學習
   
- 與一般人相比,智障人士的學習能力比較遲緩,領悟能力較低,需要較長學習時間才能通曉。
- 由於能力所限,他們不像常人般能在同一次時間學習多樣東西,只能按步就班,完成一樣才學習另一樣。

此外,其學習能力特徵有以下幾點:
  • 學習持續性較短、精神不集中、難於持久專注做一件事情和容易分心。
  • 記憶力較差,常要重覆地提醒。
  • 應用能力較低。
  • 學習的動機少於自發,而多賴於外在影響。
  • 領悟能力和理解能力薄弱,很難作抽象和邏輯性的分析和思考。
  • 模仿力較低。
 
3.2
面貌
   
除了唐氏綜合症患者外,一般智障人士的樣貌,基本上與常人無異。
 
3.3
感情
   
性格率直、容易滿足和喜愛與人交朋友。
 
3.4
溝通
   
語言表達能力比較差,許多時既未能表達自己心中想說的話,也未能完全明白別人的說話,故與他們溝通時,應盡量用淺白及簡短的句子。
 
3.5
行為表現
   
因為是非觀念薄弱,缺乏自制能力,再加上判斷能力差,所以在教導他們的時候要清楚指出正確的行為及加強他們對正確行為的認識。

 

服務智障人士應有的態度
1.
耐性
 
智障人士的行動和言語反應普遍較常人慢,故在許可的情況下,宜給予較長時間,使其接收、以語言表達及完成指示。
2.
熱心
 
熱誠態度能促進個人動力,使工作更理想地完成。缺乏誠意,只是人做我做,工作起來便會毫不起勁。
3.
愛護、關懷
 
智障人士的自我保護和照顧能力很差,特別是嚴重及中度智障的一群。他們缺乏表達能力及自我照顧能力,多需要他人提供的指導及提示,所以教練需具備愛護和關心的態度。
4.
接納智障人士在各方面的限制
 
智障人士由於智能所限,有些更是多種弱能,例如智障兼自閉症/弱聽。他們表現出來的行為,說話或動作,在一般人眼中是很「怪異」的,假如我們加以揶揄或譏笑。對他們的學習信心、情緒、社交態度等,便很容易造成負面的影響。
5.
公正
 
所謂人不可以貌相,我們不應該按智障人士的外貌而給予不同的對待,不論樣貌可愛或醜陋者均應一視同仁。
6.
接納及注意智障人士的獨特性和不同處
 
每一個人都會受先天(如遺傳)因素和後天環境,形成了個人的獨特行為模式、習慣和生活方式,因而解決問題的能力和方法亦有所不同。故此,我們與他們相處時要因應其個別差異及獨特性去照顧其需要。
7.
平等機會
 
智障人士也是社會的一份子,我們不應以他們對社會貢獻的多寡去衡量他們的價值,剝削他們參與社會活動的機會,我們應該尊重他們也有權利和自由,讓他們有平等的機會,尊嚴地生活在同一社區內。
8.
給予學習機會來提高獨立性
 
給予機會從實際工作(活動)上學習,與他們一起工作(活動)。應避免替他們完成工作,除非他們本身能力不逮。即使需要協助,亦以最低限度為原則。過份的保護或照顧,只會助長他們倚賴和怠惰的性格及習慣,成為「永恆的兒童」。
9.
灌輸正確的知識
 
智障人士在判斷是非曲直時,很多時都需要別人的正確指導;故此,我們切不可將不正確的知識及思想灌輸給他們。在指控他們時,更應維持一致性,以免令他們無所適從。
10.
適當的期望
 
我們要面對現實,對待智障人士時要持樂觀態度,並期望有一定的進展,如果我們對一個人的期望是低的,他能達到的目標也自然是低的。因為我們的目的是希望激發他們的鬥志,在他們能力範圍內達至最理想的成績,而並非填補或改變他們弱能上的缺憾。

 

幫助智障人士學習時應注意的要點
1.
不要避開一個想接近你的智障人士,逃避和抗拒會令他們感到不安。
2.
以耐心和諒解去聆聽智障人士,他可能對表達自己的意願會感到困難。
3.
讓智障人士有充分的時間去適應變化和新經驗,因為通常新的經驗會令他們感到害怕。
4.
對智障人士作出不恰當的社交行為不必特別理會,反之,對他們適當的行為,應加以讚賞和獎勵。
5.
給予智障人士的指示要清楚和一致,可以用同一字眼重複你的指示。
6.
要求智障人士遵守諾言,不要以為他不明白或忘記你所說的話,便輕易放棄。

 

   

Benefits of Sports to ID Persons Participating in sports activities is physically and mentally beneficial to everybody. As ID persons are rather inferior in intellectual and mental functioning, sports development is particularly essential to them. Not only does it help improve their health but also boost their self-esteem through communication with others, and then integrate into the community accordingly.


What is Intellectual Disability
1.
What is Intellectual Disability
 

Intellectual Disability (ID) refers to the brain function is under slow or abnormal development and hence setting restrictions on learning and adaptation ability. Apart from intelligence, however, ID persons are no different from the able bodies.
ID is a permanent defect that cannot be cured. Fortunately, ID persons’ potential can be explored and developed through education and training at an early stage.
There are numerous ID classification levels and the standard varies from country to country. In Hong Kong, ID persons are categorized as follows:

 
Category
IQ
Mild
50 – 69
Intermediate
25 – 49
Severe
25 or below
     
2.
Causes of Intellectual Disability
 
The causes of intellectual disability can be categorized into prenatal and postnatal.
 
2.1
Prenatal causes include those that are caused before birth including:
   
- Abnormal genes
- Foetus infected by virus
 
2.2
Postnatal causes refer to the ones after a baby was born including:
   
- Abnormal labour and delivery of the baby
- Appropriate treatment is not received during sickness
     
3.
Characteristics of the Intellectually Disabled
 
3.1
Learning
   
Compared with the able bodies, ID persons are weak in knowledge acquisition and comprehension and thus require a longer time to learn new things. For example, it may cost them 20 times or more to learn a movement that only costs 10 times for the able bodies. Under this circumstance, they can only learn things one by one.
 

Besides, other characteristics in learning are as follows:

  • They can be easily distracted so it is hard for them to focus on and concentrate in doing one thing for a long time.
  • They have weak memory and require frequent reminder.
  • They possess weaker adaptive skills.
  • Their motion of learning relies on stimulation rather than self-motivation.
  • They are weak in understanding and comprehension so it is hard for them to perform abstract and logical analysis and thinking.
  • Their ability to mimic is lower than the able bodies.
 
3.2
Appearance
   
Except those who are with Down Syndrome, their appearances are not different from the others.
 
3.3
Emotion
   
They are very strict-forward and can be easily satisfied. They also love to meet new friends.
 
3.4
Communication
   
They are rather weak in expressing themselves so we should use simple and short sentences to communicate with them.
 
3.5
Behavior
   
As they are of weak judgement and lack self control, we should correct their misbehavior immediately.
     

 

Attitude held towards ID Persons
1.
Patience
 
ID persons are rather slower than the able bodies in reacting to actions and words. Thus, we should give them time to absorb the idea, express verbally and finish the instruction with patience.
2.
Enthusiasm
 
Our enthusiasm will encourage ID persons to perform better.
3.
Love and Care
 
Coaches should be equipped with love and care to take care of ID athletes, especially to those with intermediate and severe grade of ID, who are weak in self-care and self-defense.
4.
Accepting Limitations
 
Since most of the ID persons are of multi-disabilities such as autism and hearing loss, we should not jeer at them for their “weird” behaviour. This would make a negative impact on their confidence in learning, emotions and even social life.
5.
Justice
 
We should treat ID persons equally regardless of their appearance.
6.
Accepting Uniqueness
 
We should meet the need of ID persons according to their unique behaviours and living styles, which are formed by prenatal factors (eg. genes) and postnatal environment.
7.
Equal Opportunity
 
ID persons are also members of the community. We should respect their rights and freedom so that they can enjoy a dignified life with equal opportunities.
8.
Offering Learning Opportunity
 
We should provide ID persons with opportunities to learn from actual work (activities) and from working with us. Also, we should avoid helping them to finish their task/assignment unless they are unable to do so because overprotection only encourages their dependence and inertia.
9.
Indoctrination of Righteous Knowledge
 
We should teach ID persons righteousness as they often need guidance when making judgment. We should also keep our accusations in consistency to avoid any confusion.
10.
Setting Appropriate Expectation
 
We have to be realistic and stay positive when anticipating progress for ID persons. Our goal is to boost up their morale to strive for the best within their capacity. Hence, our expectation should be set at an appropriate level instead of covering up or altering the defect they have.

 

   
Key Points when Assisting the ID Persons in Learning
1.
Your refusal to an approaching ID person may make he or she feels uneasy.
2.
We should listen to ID persons patiently since they sometimes find it difficult to express their feelings.
3.
We should give ID persons adequate time to adapt to changes which they are usually scared of.
4.
We should ignore the misbehavior of ID persons but appreciate and reward to their righteous ones.
5.
Instructions, which can be repeated with the same wordings, to ID persons should be clear and consistent.
6.
You should require ID persons to keep their promises and do not give up on this easily for they do not understand or forgot what you have said.